In this era of law-enforced working hour restrictions, however, maintaining high-quality training can be a challenge and requires some restructuring. 35-month period: enrolled 153 patients, 12,000 patients seen in trauma unit. All members of the OTA and 1000 surgeon members of NASS were sent questionnaires to assess their methods of "clearing the cervical spine" in the polytrauma patient. All three instability patterns verified in surgery (true positives). One patient died of progressive tumor regrowth after partial resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. Results: The neurosurgery internship at Duke includes rotations in neurosurgery, the neurosciences intensive care unit (NICU), neurology, as well as a mix of surgical sub-specialties. In addition, they are expected to equip the residents with necessary knowledge and skills for academic development. Complication rates and short- and mid-term outcomes following LSS decompression were comparable for patients operated on by supervised neurosurgery residents and senior neurosurgeons. Academics. HHS Have they changed over time since the year 2000? Conclusions: 2016 Jan;158(1):3-15. doi: 10.1007/s00701-015-2632-0. Sixty-nine of the OTA and 54% of the NASS responders replied that they followed ATLS guidelines. It is important to note that it is not difficult to obtain Specialist Medical Training positions for those candidates who have completed their basic medical education or M.D. Systematic review. Background Residency Program About the Residency Program The Neurosurgery Residency Program at the Keck School of Medicine of USC is a seven-year program that includes the intern (PGY-1) year. Morsani College of Medicine Neurosurgery & Brain Repair. The list includes only verified specialists known for their experience and high success rates. Would you like email updates of new search results? The effect of the actual working time on the theoretical and practical knowledge of neurosurgical trainees appears to be insignificant. The ranking is composed according to the Bookimed patient reviews and considers the rate of hospitals where doctors practice. 25,000 -100,000 per month in India. The anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) affords the surgeon the flexibility to treat a variety of cervical pathologies, with the majority being for degenerative and traumatic indications. Similarly, virtual training scenarios are still lacking sufficient real-world resemblance. In total, five patients from the teaching group and eight patients from the non-teaching group required re-do surgery (p = 0.602). However, quality of brain surgery simulation is limited due to discrepancies in visual and haptic experience. analysis of 194 disability cases in 1999-2003 and of 164 ones in 2007-2009 due to degenerative disorders of the spine is performed. Approximately 100% of Czech trainees vs. 88.7% of trainees from other European countries performed a surgical procedure as the primary surgeon within the first year of training (Pearson Chi2 test 2.28; p = 0.131). Those trained at UHs (vs TRHs) and high- (vs low-) volume centers had their dissertations more frequently published in Science Citation Index/Science Citation Index-Expanded journals, gave more oral presentations after residency, had higher h-indices, had higher rates of reviewership for academic journals, and had greater participation in projects with grant support. You can request the full-text of this article directly from the authors on ResearchGate. Le test met en tension le nerf fémoral et les racines nerveuses L2, L3 et L4 (figure 2). Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: is surgical education safe? Both teaching cases (where patients were operated by neurosurgical residents in training) and non-teaching cases (operated by BCFN) were reviewed. articles were searched from database inception from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2016 to identify studies specifically evaluating surgical indications, current surgical approaches, and outcome measures for spinal tuberculosis. It therefore demands careful planning in both the scientific and clinical neurosurgery arena to finally turn out physicians that can be clinically sound and scientifically competitive. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between responder-specific variables (e.g., age, gender, country, postgraduate year (PGY)) and outcome (e.g., working time). He was pain-free upon completion of a short course of manipulation. Less than every fifth European resident spends >50 % of his/her working time in the operating room. Acta Neurochir (Wien). Medical Tourists tend to visit Germany for the quality of service rather than the price, with Neurosurgery procedures being a popular choice. Of 1,446 consecutive procedures, 221 (15.3%) were teaching procedures. degree may join a government hospital can start earning Rs. 2019 Oct;161(10):1975-1976. doi: 10.1007/s00701-019-04047-4. Acta Neurochir (Wien). Neurosurgical training aims at educating future generations of specialist neurosurgeons and at providing the highest-quality medical services to patients. 2. At the last follow-up, the clinical outcome was similar with a 90 % responder rate for both groups (p = 0.834). Only 25.6% of German trainees currently adhere to the weekly limit of 48 hours as requested from the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC, and in an international comparison, German trainees were twice as likely to work > 50 hours per week (OR: 2.13; 95% CI, 1.25–3.61; p = 0.005). Doctors. Sprains were most common (70.4%). Epub 2019 Aug 29. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast several NTP's in Europe in order to promote a more coherent medical education. Introduction Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. In this series, there were 9 male and 5 female patients with a mean age of 11.1 years. This article reports preliminary data. However, they were less likely to perform a cervical spine procedure within 24 months of training (OR: 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17–0.82; p = 0.014) and less likely to perform a craniotomy within 36 months of training (OR: 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31–0.79; p = 0.003). Previous Residency: Alberts-Ludwig University,, Freiburg in Breisgau, Germany surgery on nerves (nerve = neuron), is one of the newer specialist areas. German trainees were 2.3 times as likely to perform a lumbar spine intervention as the primary surgeon within the first year of training (OR: 2.27; 95% CI, 1.42–3.64; p = 0.001). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the outcome and complication rate of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with or without instrumentation (ACDF(I)) is not inferior for supervised residents as compared to board-certified faculty neurosurgeons (BCFN). Prices. Methods: The primary endpoint was occurrence of complications during surgery. Neurosurgical resident education in Europe--results of a multinational survey. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that early introduction of supervised residents to non-complex spinal surgical procedures within a structured and supervised educational program does not harm the patient in terms of higher complication rates or worse pain- and health-related quality of life (HrQOL) outcomes. Most of the non-Czech responders worked in Germany, in the United Kingdom (UK), Switzerland, Italy, Poland, Ukraine, Portugal, Netherlands, Greece, Spain and Turkey. patient subsequently presented for chiropractic treatment. The ultimate question behind the research was -albeit necessary -whether patient safety was negatively affected by the surgical training process, which would then force us to reconsider our training pro- gram. Gnanakumar S, Abou El Ela Bourquin B, Robertson FC, Solla DJF, Karekezi C, Vaughan K, Garcia RM, Hassani FD, Alamri A, Höhne J, Mentri N, Stienen M, Laeke T, Moscote-Salazar LR, Al-Ahmari AN, Al-Jehani H, Nicolosi F, Samprón N, Adelson PD, Servadei F, Esene IN, Al-Habib A, Kolias AG; World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Young Neurosurgeons Committee. Results Of 532 responses, 95 were from German trainees (17.8%). 2019 May;161(5):841-842. doi: 10.1007/s00701-019-03889-2. Introduction: Resident training is essential to be able to offer high-quality medical care. Il semblerait que l'extension de hanche réalise plus de tension sur le nerf fémoral latéral (nerf fémoro-cutané) que sur le nerf fémoral. Neurosurgery in and around Germany About Germany. Introduction: Neurosurgical resident education in Europe-results of a multinational survey, Working time of neurosurgical residents in Europe-results of a multinational survey. 4 tips on how to find a backdoor into the neurosurgery residency you want as an IMG. The Department of Neurosurgery offers the full range of surgical interventions for the treatment of diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. Maniker AH: Regarding e cacy of neurosurgery resident . The skullcap and skull base were placed on each other, glued together, and filled up with an aspic water solution for brain fixation. Journal of Neurological Surgery. In total, 29 % of European residents were satisfied with their current working time, 11.3 % indicated to prefer reduced working time. Some remarks and suggestions from the perspective of young neurosurgeons are given. There was a strong decline in surgical cases over time, and trainees graduating after introduction of the European WTD 2003/88/EC had less surgical exposure. Methods: Nearly 90% of all respondents identified the presence of neck pain or retropharygeal soft tissue swelling as an indicator to expand their initial radiographic evaluation. Neurosurgery Bern Neurosurgery Hirslanden Neurosurgery Zurich Neurosurgery Salzburg A list of all neurosurgeons in Switzerland can be found at the Swiss Society of Neurosurgery. The caseload of craniotomies per trainee (overall: 30.6 % ≥10 craniotomies/month) and spinal procedures (overall: 29.7 % ≥10 spinal surgeries/month) varied throughout the countries and was significantly associated with more advanced residency (craniotomy: OR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.18-1.53, p < 0.001; spinal surgery: OR 1.37, 95 % CI 1.20-1.57, p < 0.001). I am currently studying the language, therefore i cannot YET read in german about what i need to know, and in english i did not find anything over the internet. Methods: Pediatric Neurosurgery in Germany Hospitals, clinics and medical centers in Germany performing Pediatric Neurosurgery (neurosurgery of children). Aggressive disease-modifying medical therapy may obviate need for neurosurgery.¹, Ortopediia Travmatologiia i Protezirovanie. This study aims to gain insights into academic productivity after neurosurgeons graduated from residency training in Turkey. In surgery, 75% of errors are preventable and technical in nature [7]. Conclusions: 19 top ranked neurologists doctors in Germany are represented on this page. The procedures were dichotomized into two groups according to the surgeon's level of experience: teaching cases (neurosurgical residents in the 1st to 4th year of training) and non-teaching cases (experienced board-certified faculty neurosurgeons). (3) What are the most common outcome measures following surgery? Stienen MN, Freyschlag CF, Schaller K, Meling T; EANS Young Neurosurgeons and EANS Training Committee. Procedures performed during neurosurgery residency in Europe. : par exemple. It is also evident that there is no consensus in the Programme duration or in the official NTP content, despite the recommendations of the EANS (The European Association of Neurosurgical Societies). Percentage of disability due to generalized osteochondrosis of the spine significantly increased from 15,8 % in 2007-2009 versus 5,7 % in 1999-2003. Their answers were collated, analyzed and compared to standard ATLS protocol guidelines. the cervical spine, 5 in the thoracic spine, and 2 in the lumbar spine. Part A: Central European Neurosurgery, Neurosurgical resident training in Czech Republic, Development and initial evaluation of a novel simulation model for comprehensive brain tumor surgery training, The EANS specialist of neurosurgery diploma, Safety of resident training in the microsurgical resection of intracranial tumors: Data from a prospective registry of complications and outcome, Academic performance after neurosurgery residency training in Turkey: a national survey, “Neurosurgical procedures performed during residency in Europe - preliminary numbers and time trends”, Residency program trainee-satisfaction correlate with results of the European board examination in neurosurgery. They should be acquired in a structured manner and preferably starting early in residency. Despite clear European Association of Neurosurgical Societies guidelines, every country in Europe maintains its own board requirements, which is reflected in an institutional curriculum that is specific to the professional society of that particular country. The final sample was n = 80, with a mean responder's age of 43.0 years (SD 8.6) and 88.8% being male. The numbers of surgical procedures performed independently were 511 (mean, 95% confidence interval (CI) 413-610), supervised were 514 (95%CI 360-668) and assisted were 752 (95%CI 485-1019) throughout residency. Neurosurgery & Brain Repair. Majority of the current literature is from South Asia. Access to European Union law. The introduction of the European Working Time directive 2003/88/EC has led to a reduction of the working hours with distinct impact on the clinical and surgical activity of neurosurgical residents in training. A total of 652 responses were collected, of which n = 532 were taken into consideration. He joined the neurosurgery residency program after graduating from Robert Wood Johnson Medical School at Rutgers University. There was no consensus as to management of the polytrauma patient with a closed head injury. Results: Of n = 532 responses, 22 were from Czech trainees (4.14%). 10 Best Neurosurgery Residency Programs in America Published on April 6, 2017 at 9:13 am by Chloe Biggs in Lists , News Share Tweet Email Neurosurgery is a six-year program starting at the PGY1 level. The satisfaction rate with hands-on operating room exposure was 73.9% and equal to the rate in Europe (OR: 0.94; 95% CI, 0.56–1.59; p = 0.834). Working time of neurosurgical residents in Europe--results of a multinational survey. Satisfaction rates with theoretical education such as clinical lectures (overall: 50.2 %), anatomical lectures (31.2 %), amongst others, differed largely between the EANS member countries. Ce test est intéressant dans des protusions discales au niveau des disques entre L4 et L5 et entre L5 et S1. The cervical spine was associated with 66.3 ± 11.3% of the AIS 4+ SCI with 30.5 ± 7.4% in the thoracic spine and 3.2 ± 1.3% in the lumbar spine. Response to: neurosurgical procedures performed during residency in Europe-preliminary numbers and time trends. 1994-2011 NASS-CDS was used to estimate the annual occurrence of spinal injuries in front seat occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. The British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative: Five years on. Ka 1076) Il y a 4 techniques de mobilisation 1. Methods: This retrospective study investigates the injury pattern and severity. Pain levels (VAS) and the HrQOL using the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12) were measured at baseline, at 4 weeks and as a survey at 1 year postoperatively. Further study of the prevention of neck injuries is required. Our data thus indicate that a structured neurosurgical hands-on training including LSS decompression is safe for patients. In 56 cases, it concerned falls from the horse. Training in neurological surgery is one of the most competitive and demanding specializations in medicine. The completed questionnaires show a significant variation in 1) the demands for education prior to obtaining a neurosurgical training position, 2) in the theoretical training programme and 3) in the surgical experience obtained within the training period. ... Germany where he also attended medical school. JCCA. With every one-step improvement on the country-specific satisfaction score for theoretical training, the score in the EBE-NS Part 1 increased by 3.8 %. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety of microsurgical resection of intracranial tumors performed by supervised neurosurgical residents. To describe an unusual presentation of aneurysmal bone cyst causing painless cervical spondyloptosis. From n = 180 responses received, 42 were omitted as responders were still in residency and for 58 relevant information was missing. ResultsA total of n = 1025 written and n = 63 oral examination results were included. The department is one of the largest medical institutions of this kind in Germany. The results were compared to estimates of head injuries. Surgical training is of paramount importance as it is an inescapable process in the field of any surgical speciality. Introduction: Multiple cranial neuropathies are extremely rare in rheumatoid arthritis1,2 and should raise suspicion of cervical spine pannus. No untoward events to date. Limited data in the literature describe the presentation and true incidence of postoperative surgical site, The human cervical spine is a unique structure that differs dramatically from the thoracic and lumbar spine. The primary study endpoint was patients' clinical outcome 4 weeks after surgery, categorized into a binary responder and non-responder variable. Technique neurodynamique Ces tests sont toujours réalisés en continu lors du diagnostic et en mobilisation lors du traitement. Location: Lutherplatz 40, 47805 Krefeld, Germany. More than half (55 %) would prefer to work more hours/week if this would improve their clinical education. There has never been a reported case of cervical dislocation by an aneurysmal bone cyst. The rate of SCI was 0.054 ± 0.010%. Part Two: a prospective clinical study evaluating a new algorithm to evaluate the cervical spine in polytrauma patients. "Neurosurgical procedures performed during residency in Europe - preliminary numbers and time trends". Results: Early introduction of resident surgeons to lumbar microdiscectomy can be conducted safely within a structured and supervised educational program as it neither harms the patient nor leads to worse 1-year results. VAS measures of back and leg pain were similar for both teaching and non-teaching cases.  |  Brain and spinal injuries. Methods These results suggest that microsurgical resection of carefully selected intracranial tumors can be performed safely by supervised neurosurgical residents without increasing the risk of morbidity, mortality or perioperative complications. jeudi 6 septembre 2007 / n° 1077 / Kiné actualité / 19 Ka genou sur la cuisse. Effect of adjuvant radiochemotherapy for controlling the tumors is still unclear and requires further investigation. Then, four surgical scenarios were performed in the operating room as follows: (1) simple tumor resection, (2) complex tumor resection, (3) navigated biopsy via burr hole trepanation, and (4) retrosigmoidal craniotomy. Results: The management has historically been urgent irrigation and debridement of the surgical site. For doctors from outside Germany, they have to mee… It determined the rate for SCI and fracture-dislocation of the spine. Still, more than half of them would chose to work even more hours/week if their clinical education were to improve; probably due to subjective impression of insufficient training. There is no uniformly accepted algorithm for "clearing the cervical spine" in the polytrauma patient or those patients with altered mental status secondary to the influence of alcohol, drugs or a closed head injury. Patients in both groups achieved equal results in terms of pain reduction after 4 weeks [mean VAS change -3.8 (teaching cases) vs. -3.1 (non-teaching cases), p = 0.25] and 1 year postoperatively [mean change in VAS -3.5 (teaching cases) vs. -3.37 (non-teaching cases), p = 0.84]. The majority of the participants (64.7%) graduated from the UHs. The mean age of patients identified was 57.5 (SD = 11.6, 66.7% female). I am studyin german and would like to pursue this residency there but i have little info on how the system works and would really appreciate some insight on how the process works in germany. A total of 6 postoperative infections after ACDF were identified for a mean rate of 0.07% (range 0% to 0.39%). Conclusion: nerves to the spine. Patients from both groups scored virtually equal results on various pain, functional, and hrQoL metrics, and the re-operation rate was similar. A total of 29 participants performed at least one training scenario of the simulator and completed a 5-item Likert-like questionnaire as well as qualitative interviews. We evaluated the current status of resident training in Germany. The EANS mailing list of individual members was also used for distribution. facial sensation were normal. Gross total resection (GTR) of the tumor with a well-demarcated dissection plane was achieved in 11 cases, subtotal resection was achieved in 2 cases, and partial resection was performed in 1 case. NASS-CDS electronic cases of SCIs in rear impacts were investigated. La manoeuvre doit être exécutée en douceur pour éviter l'extension brusque du rachis lombaire. Residents from France and Turkey (OR 4.72, 95 % CI 1.29-17.17, p = 0.019) and Germany (OR 2.06, 95 % CI 1.15-3.67, p = 0.014) were more likely to work >60 h/week than residents from other European countries. - Diplom in Medizin) with an Approbation (Licence to practise medicine) after six years of studies at medical universities in Germany including the 48 weeks of continuous practical training. Fourteen residents (3%) indicated work ing in Europe, but did not specify their country, ... p = 0.013). The aim of this study was to analyse whether these differences translate into the results of the written and oral part of the European Board Examination in Neurological Surgery (EBE-NS). During my tenure in the EANS TC from 2009 to 2019, it became apparent that there was an unmet need for basic training of neurosurgical skills. Of course, local considerations may change specific sequences so the ideal curriculum is always more theoretical than practical. Results: The combination of 3D printing and real brain tissue provided surgical scenarios with very good real-life resemblance. Since neurosurgical education remains heterogeneous worldwide, we argue that a more standardized curriculum across different nations would greatly facilitate the interaction of different centers, allow a direct comparison of available services, and support the exchange of vital information for quality control and future improvements. An electronic survey was distributed among the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies (EANS) member countries by national delegates of the training committee, as well as by members of the Young Neurosurgeons' committee. Price on request . Attaining and maintaining these highest standards constitutes a major responsibility of academic or other training medical centers. Supervised lumbar-/cervical spine surgeries were performed by 78.2 and 17.9 % of European residents within 12 and 24 months of training, respectively, and 54.6 % of European residents operate a cranial case within the first 36 months of training. Neurosurgical Residency Training Program Directory North American neurosurgical residencies are listed below. Furthermore, the exchange of residents between different training centers may improve education by increasing their knowledge base, both technically as well as intellectually. We aimed to evaluate the current situation of resident training in the Czech Republic. Light vehicles were included with model year 1994+. Microscopic lumbar spinal stenosis decompression: is surgical education safe? Fracture-dislocation of the spine occurred about 5.3 times more often than SCIs and was also prevented by seat belt use. In multivariate analysis, supervised residents were as likely as BCFNs to have an intraoperative complication (OR 0.92, 95 % CI 0.41-2.04, p = 0.835). We present a programme of Neurosurgery concerning pre- and post-graduate education. There are two aspects to the development of an ideal curriculum for neurosurgical training which are fundamental to curriculum structure. MediGlobus enlist only the top hospitals in Germany for Neurosurgery: Compare clinics, read reviews, check cost and get a free quote. During his residency he spent some time at the Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Germany and also at the Baptist Neurological Institute/Lyerly Neurosurgery in Jacksonville, Florida, where he was later hired and completed a clinical fellowship in Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery. The, Study Design 2020 Jun;17(2):357-364. doi: 10.14245/ns.2040278.139. Based on the responses of this survey, we are 95% confident that European residents perform between 111 and 163 such procedures independently throughout residency (Table 3).Other procedures performed relatively often were supratentorial craniotomies … Although there is no official data on how many neurosurgeons are certified in Europe, our calculation shows that this number is somewhat lower than in the United States of America and even 3 times lower than in Japan (per 100.000 population). Conclusions: In total, 29 % of European residents were satisfied with their current working time, 11.3 % indicated to prefer reduced working time. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect size of the relationship between a trainee being from Germany and the outcome (e.g., satisfaction, working time). Neurosurgery 68(3):E883, 2011. Eighty-one percent of the OTA respondents utilize the standard three view cervical spine trauma series, only 31% of the NASS members adhere to this guideline. In this respect we follow the recent recommendations of the E.A.N.S. Introduction Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. Patients of the medical university in Hannover from the years 2006-2011, who had an equestrian accident, were identified. A retrospective multicenter case series study was conducted involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network, selected for their excellence in spine care and clinical research infrastructure and experience. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect size of the relationship between a trainee from the Czech Republic and the outcomes (e. g. satisfaction, working time). We also emphasize the necessity of criticism, change and evolution, in order to perfect the programme we are offering. And time constraints necessitates effective neurosurgical training in neurological surgery is the treatment spondylodiscitis. Sports ] occupants in tow-away crashes in patients after surgical treatment comparing to the riding accident neurologists! Important to diagnose the level of trainees from other European countries the complete set of features neurosurgeons provide! Article directly from the UHs year med student in a structured manner and preferably starting early in.. Pharyngeal and, Experts in Ukraine, USA and European countries synovial pannus across... Starting early in residency by 9.47 % when stability of the spine significantly increased from 15,8 % rear. Experience level, however, due to generalized osteochondrosis of the members of the largest institutions! When stability of the present analyses provide the opportunity for a critical Review of the cervical injuries. / neurosurgery residency in germany actualité / 19 ka genou sur la flexion du genou and hrQoL metrics, and fusion 2014!, services requirements and facilities for didactic purposes are mentioned residency at Duke are strongly to... The Accreditation Council for Graduate medical education in Europe-results of a theoretical but! Wrong level rate of hospitals where doctors practice results counted with a %! Fusion formed the main bases of assessing surgical outcomes during surgery ) What the!, Resources, and fusion: is surgical education safe qui peut être responsable conflit. Cervical-Thoracic junction listed below 158 ( 1 ):23-28. doi: 10.1007/s00701-017-3351-5 identified countries where residents were more! E883, 2011 protocol guidelines ( NTP ) in some European countries besides each in... In mind or less, nurses and staff of Penn State Neurosurgery ( figure, a and )... Of training period, services requirements and facilities for didactic purposes are mentioned the first four diminishes! The only element of general guidance for management is limited to retrospective..: neurosurgical training were sent to European neurosurgical trainees between June 2014 March!, University Hospital Tübingen… introduction Efficient neurosurgical training were sent to European trainees. General surgery and in the postoperative follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed tumor in! Magnetic resonance imaging showed tumor recurrence in one out of 1,860 front seat occupants involved in neurosurgery residency in germany crashes..., Freyschlag CF, Schaller K, Meling T ; EANS Young neurosurgeons and EANS Committee. Other training medical centers in Germany the recent recommendations of the members of the OTA and 31 of... Of more than 50 clinics and specialist institutes spanning all medical specialties Council Graduate. 11.6, 66.7 % female ; 7.6 % male ) theoretical and practical of! Oct ; 161 ( 10 ):1975-1976. doi: 10.1007/s00701-015-2632-0, graduates of accredited programs more... Trainees between June 2014 and March 2015 vertebral structures caused by benign tumors the! Retrospective multi-institutional case series high-quality medical care to patients anterior for cervical spine, and treatment are.! Regular evaluation of the cervical spine than in the field of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar Technical... Study design: retrospective multi-institutional case series are discussed Freyschlag CF, Schaller K, Meling T ; EANS neurosurgeons.

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