Neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive control: the role of prefrontal cortex in action selection, response inhibition, performance monitoring, and reward-based learning. B., Levy, R., LeBastard, G., Lehéricy, S., et al. From a cognitive (neuro)science perspective, cognitive flexibility has been viewed as an aspect of cognitive control (i.e., set-shifting) or the manifestation of multiple cognitive control processes which operate sequentially or in parallel (Dajani and Uddin, 2015; Marko and Riečanský, 2018; Zaehringer et al., 2018). An important objective of the present study was to determine whether the CCFQ predicted depressive symptoms beyond that of previously developed self-report measures which, either explicitly or implicitly, assessed processes related to cognitive control and cognitive flexibility. In Study 3 (N = 47 females), lower scores on the cognitive control over emotion component of the CCFQ predicted elevated negative affect and an exacerbated cortisol response following an acute psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.06.013, Peacock, E. J., and Wong, P. T. (1990). 1:59. doi: 10.1038/35036228, Monsell, S. (2003). This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Grant 9180. Rev. As in Study 1, participants were recruited through Carleton University’s online recruitment system. To this end, a brief (18-item) self-report measure – the Cognitive Control and Flexibility Questionnaire (CCFQ) – was developed. Although mental defeat and cognitive flexibility did not reach the level of the healthy control group, they demonstrated improvement. The SAM and SCOPE assess the ‘content’ of an appraisal (e.g., levels of threat or control) or a coping strategy (i.e., frequency of endorsing emotional expression), respectively. doi: 10.1007/s10608-009-9276-4, Denson, T. F., Creswell, J. D., Terides, M. D., and Blundell, K. (2014). 24, 699–711. Psychoneuroendocrinology 28, 916–931. Psychosom. 95, 126–135. The cognitive control of emotion. Responses ranged on a six-point scale from 0 (not at all) to 6 (extremely), with higher scores indicating greater intensity of negative affect (α = 0.89). doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2008.12.008, Mordecai, K. L., Rubin, L. H., Eatough, E., Sundermann, E., Drogos, L., Savarese, A., et al. The internal reliability of each appraisal dimension was: threat (α = 0.71), challenge (α = 0.65), centrality (α = 0.84), control-by-self (α = 0.85), control-by-others (α = 0.89), and uncontrollable-by-anyone (α = 0.71). J. Comput. Endocr. The developers of this inventory conceptualized cognitive flexibility as being able to challenge and replace maladaptive thoughts with more balanced and adaptive thinking. After examining the items within each factor, Factor 1 was labeled cognitive control over emotion and Factor 2 appraisal and coping flexibility, The cognitive control over emotion dimension comprised items assessing fundamental cognitive control processes (e.g., attention, inhibition, and set-shifting) which might be essential in regulating negative, and potentially irrelevant, thoughts and emotions elicited by a stressful situation. doi: 10.1023/A:1005591412406. Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. The Thought Control Questionnaire (TCQ) is a 30-item instrument devised by Adrian Wells and Mark I. Davies (1994) to assess the effectiveness of strategies used for the control of unpleasant and unwanted thoughts.. Principal components analyses (PCA) with Promax rotation were used to explore the factor structure of the CCFQ in a student and community sample. Res. The frontal assessment battery (FAB) reveals neurocognitive dysfunction in substance-dependent individuals in distinct executive domains: Abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility. Rev. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.06.038, Silvers, J. Res. The item pool included 33 items involving perceived engagement with fast and slow thinking, and 22 items involving perceived ability and willingness to use the 2 reasoning styles. 19, 468–478. The present research examined how cognitive control and cognitive flexibility might be expressed in stressful situations and the processes through which reductions in these abilities might be linked to elevated depressive symptoms. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the cognitive assessment of prefrontal executive functions: a critical update. Affect. Cogn. Understanding depressive rumination from a cognitive science perspective: the impaired disengagement hypothesis. Items were further eliminated based on low inter-item correlations (r < 0.20), redundancy (r > 0.80), confusing or ambiguous wording, or respondents’ interpretations of the item did not fully represent the current conceptualization of cognitive control or of cognitive flexibility. A comprehensive review was initially conducted to explore the ways in which cognitive control and flexibility have previously been conceptualized (e.g., executive functions) and assessed (e.g., WCST). In the context of stressful experiences, the reported studies examined processes related to cognitive control and flexibility, emotional regulation and depressive symptoms. Soc. Med. Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis. Thought Control Questionnaire (TCQ). 16, 174–180. In order to make these concepts relevant to a stressful situation, cognitive content (i.e., the information that is being manipulated) was operationalized as thoughts, emotions, stressor appraisals, or coping strategies. Of particular significance is that the pattern of standardized factor loadings for each factor derived from the hypothesized model (see Table 5) replicates the loading pattern observed in Study 1. Copyright © 2018 Gabrys, Tabri, Anisman and Matheson. The main purpose of the present research was to develop and evaluate the utility of a novel self-report measure of cognitive control and flexibility that would be specific to stressful situations (the CCFQ). In the online consent form, participants were informed that validity checks would be performed on all data to ensure the integrity of responses, and that only those who responded faithfully would receive compensation ($5 gift card to Starbucks or Tim Hortons). Rev. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23904, Morton, J. It’s developed by Vander Wal and Dennis in 2010 and consists of 20 items. Cogn. Behav. From a clinical perspective, cognitive flexibility has been described as the ability to change one’s maladaptive attitudes and beliefs with more appropriate ones (Dennis and Vander Wal, 2010), and disturbances of cognitive control were proposed to underpin the use of ineffective emotional regulation strategies, including excessive rumination (Koster et al., 2011). Brain Cogn. The development of cognitive flexibility and language abilities. This model provided a poor fit to the data, χ2 (126) = 456.990, p < 0.0001, CFI = 0.875, and RMSEA = 0.084. Neuropsychologia 46, 224–232. Standardized predictor, mediator, and outcome variables were used in Model 4 of PROCESS, with 95% Confidence Intervals (C.I.) ESEM was used, as opposed to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), because CFA has a strict requirement of zero cross-loadings in models with more than one substantive factor, which is an overly restrictive assumption that often leads to poor model fit. In stressor contexts, cognitive control might, therefore, be accompanied by the increased ability to disengage from repetitive negative thinking (i.e., rumination) which can not only serve to attenuate negative emotional states, but also facilitate proactive coping efforts (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2008). The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) is a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility (CF) necessary to successfully challenge and restructure maladaptive beliefs with more balanced and adaptive thinking; it is particularly popular for use with English speakers. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to examine the relation between components of the CCFQ, validation measures, and depressive symptoms. Res. Meta-analysis of Go/No-go tasks demonstrating that fMRI activation associated with response inhibition is task-dependent. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.08.005, Koster, E. H., Hoorelbeke, K., Onraedt, T., Owens, M., and Derakshan, N. (2017). Rather, these results indicate that a proportion of the relationship between CCFQ scores and depressive symptoms is accounted for by differences in stressor appraisals and the endorsement of particular coping methods. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2009.03.005, Ochsner, K. N., and Gross, J. J. 23:313. doi: 10.1007/s10827-007-0034-x, Stewart, J. G., Mazurka, R., Bond, L., Wynne-Edwards, K. E., and Harkness, K. L. (2013). This notwithstanding, the present findings support the notion that the CCFQ might be a useful self-report measure of processes related to cognitive control and flexibility in the context of stressful situations. In a stressful situation, this might entail focusing on threat-related information and that which is conducive to eliminating a stressor, and away from non-essential information. 1, 293–319. (2007). Cogn. 3, 400–424. Psychiatry 42, 225–232. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_01029, Gotlib, I. H., and Joormann, J. Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. The CCFQ was conceptualized and modeled after the type of cognitive control and cognitive flexibility measured through ‘cold’ executive function tasks (e.g., the Go/No-Go task, the WCST), where the defining features of these measures (inhibiting a prepotent response, shifting cognitive sets or behavioral strategies) served as a foundation for the development of this measure. In essence, unlike the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, the CCFQ more directly taps into processes related to cognitive control and emotional regulation, most notably, the ability (or inability) to disengage from negative cognitive and emotional states. However, contrary to expectations, individual differences in the appraisal and coping flexibility, ΔR2 = 0.03, F(1,42) = 3.07, p = 0.09, and cognitive control over emotion, ΔR2 = 0.00, F(1,42) = 0.16, p = 0.69, components of the CCFQ did not moderate this effect. Psychol. The defining features of coping flexibility closely resemble the hallmark characteristic of cognitive flexibility, which is modifying cognitive or behavioral strategies in response to changing environmental demands. As shown in Figure 2, in comparison to the control condition, the TSST elicited greater cortisol levels (i.e., larger cortisol AUCi index) among individuals with low cognitive control over emotion (b = 17.25, SE = 6.84, p = 0.02), but not among those with high cognitive control over emotion (b = -1.99, SE = 6.81, p = 0.77). This questionnaire is a short self-re- ported instrument which contains 20 questions. Cognitive inflexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Task switching. J. Pers. The CCFQ was used to measure cognitive control over emotion (α = 0.91) and appraisal and coping flexibility (α = 0.90) processes. Top. Beta-adrenergic modulation of cognitive flexibility during stress. The Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (BI-AAQ) assesses cognitive flexibility and acceptance of body image.This study was done to assess the validity and reliability of the Persian version of BI-AAQ, as an instrument to measure body image flexibility, in patients with somatic symptom and related disorders.This descriptive psychometric study was done in 2017 on 357 patients … “Stress: appraisal and coping,” in Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine, eds Marc Gellman and J. Rick Turner (New York, NY: Springer), 1913–1915. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Each statement was rated on a scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). (2018). These findings are in line with reports that more frequent use of emotion-focused and avoidant coping, and limited engagement of problem-focused methods, were notable among depressed individuals (e.g., Whatley et al., 1998; Matheson and Anisman, 2003; Abdollahi et al., 2018). inventory, morningness-eveningness questionnaire and short form of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire. A PCA with Promax rotation (since the factors were expected to be correlated) was conducted to explore the factor structure of the preliminary 44-item CCFQ and to select the final items for this measure. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2004.09.016, Rolls, E. T. (2000). Results without this procedure are presented in Supplementary Material (Supplementary Analyses: Study 3). The factor structure of the CCFQ in the community sample was nearly identical to that observed in the student sample, with the exception of one item. Although varying in task specificity, these behavioral paradigms assess the efficiency (or inefficiency) in shifting attention between relevant and irrelevant information. The negative affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Version (PANAS-X; Watson and Clark, 1999) was used to assess the intensity of state negative mood immediately post-TSST. Laboratory sessions were conducted between 1300 and 1730 h to minimize the contribution of circadian factors to the cortisol responses. Sci. The (b) link between creativity and dopamine: spontaneous eye blink rates predict and dissociate divergent and convergent thinking. (2011). The cognitive flexibility inventory (CFI) was developed to be a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility necessary for individuals to successfully challenge and replace maladaptive thoughts with more balanced and adaptive thinking. 53, 480–485. 140, 1582–1607. The CCFQ was introduced as follows: “The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what you generally think/feel/do when stressful situations provoke negative thoughts and emotions. Once consent had been granted, participants completed the shortened (18-item) CCFQ in addition to several related questionnaires. This study was restricted to females because of their elevated propensity to depression relative to that seen in males. U.S.A. 109, 14681–14686. As assessed by the CCFQ, reduced cognitive control over emotion was associated with increased repetitive thinking and rumination, elevated negative affect following a stressful situation, and ultimately heightened symptoms of depression. Rev. Disrupted interhemispheric synchrony in default mode network underlying the impairment of cognitive flexibility in late-onset depression. 216, 397–408. 85, 348–362. Trends Cogn. *Correspondence: Robert L. Gabrys,, Front. Cognitive control interventions for depression: a systematic review of findings from training studies. Thus, on the whole, the CCFQ appears to capture several key elements of cognitive control, coping, and emotion regulation beyond those assessed by the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. Received: 20 March 2018; Accepted: 26 October 2018;Published: 19 November 2018. The higher the number, the greater psychological inflexibility (minimum score is 7; highest score is 49). The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ; Ehring et al., 2011) is a 15-item questionnaire assessing content-independent repetitive negative thinking. A parallel review was undertaken to investigate how control/flexibility might be manifested in stressful situations, which included literature pertaining to attention (set-shifting) and cognitive control as well as stressor appraisals and coping processes. Cognitive control and (cognitive) flexibility play an important role in an individual’s ability to adapt to continuously changing environments. Self-reported ethnicity included Caucasian (70.9%, n = 261), Asian (6.8%, n = 25), Black (6.0%, n = 22), Arab (5.2%, n = 19), South Asian (4.1%, n = 15), Hispanic (2.2%, n = 8), South East Asian (1.6%, n = 6), Aboriginal (0.3%, n = 1), and other (e.g., mixed ethnicity, 3.0%, n = 11). Individual differences in reappraisal effectiveness: the role of affective flexibility. In addition, since the hypothesized two factors underlying the CCFQ are confounded by valence of item wording (the appraisal and coping flexibility factor has only positively worded items and the cognitive control over emotion consists mainly of negatively worded items), we included a method factor in the model to account for variance related to the valence of the items. The appraisal and coping flexibility dimension of the CCFQ assessed an individual’s perceived ability to engage in a set of deliberate effortful behaviors that can facilitate a comprehensive and favorable appraisal of a stressful situation as well as the selection of a broad range of coping strategies. Explanatory flexibility and explanatory style in treatment-seeking patients with Axis I psychopathology. Results: There is a statistically significant relationship between flexibility in coping with stress and its dimensions, and cognitive flexibility and its dimensions, in the examined group of firefighters. The Executive Skills Questionnaire (ESQ) is a questionnaire designed to rate your executive skills. Answer the questions as to how true they are for you. A systematic review. Thus, cognitive flexibility as assessed by the CCFQ might not contribute to differences in overall perceived stressfulness concerning an acute challenge. Bull. Pharmacol. doi: 10.1037/a0037913, Chermahini, S. A., and Hommel, B. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348, Gruner, P., and Pittenger, C. (2017). The neural and genetic basis of executive function: attention, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition. 24, 281–298. Effective problem-solving and decision-making were also proposed to highly depend on cognitive flexibility (Cañas et al., 2003; Isen, 2008; Hare et al., 2009). 7, 134–140. The fundamental factor in the expression of these abilities is highly dependent on context, including the characteristics and demands of the situation. Self-reported ethnic identities included Caucasian (72.8%, n = 220), Asian (11.9%, n = 36), South Asian (5.0%, n = 15), Black (2.0%, n = 6), Arab (2.0%, n = 6), Aboriginal (1.3%, n = 4), Hispanic (1.0%, n = 3), South East Asian, (1.0%, n = 3), and other (e.g., mixed ethnicity, 2.6%, n = 8). Bull. Cognitive control can be expressed through directing attention toward information that is relevant to situation (or goal), while inhibiting that which is not relevant. 31, 138–145. Res. (2009). The only notable decrease in the correlation between the CCFQ and depressive symptoms appeared to occur when controlling for perseverative thinking and rumination. Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. In line with the data presented in Table 2, the CCFQ was no longer linked to reflective coping and expressive suppression (Table 3). For example, T1 represents the length of time between the collection of cortisol sample 1 (Cort1) and sample 2 (Cort2). doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.95.2.107, Gläscher, J., Adolphs, R., Damasio, H., Bechara, A., Rudrauf, D., Calamia, M., et al. Behav. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. In the present study, diminished appraisal and coping flexibility were accompanied by negative stressor appraisals, lower reappraisal in the context of emotion regulation, the endorsement of ineffective and inflexible coping, and heightened depressive symptoms. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.07.003, Díaz-Blancat, G., García-Prieto, J., Maestú, F., and Barceló, F. (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.012, Vriezekolk, J. E., van Lankveld, W. G., Eijsbouts, A. M., van Helmond, T., Geenen, R., and van den Ende, C. H. (2012). The total effect of appraisal and coping flexibility on depressive symptoms was c = -0.389, SE = 0.048, p < 0.001. Generally, in stressful situations … (specific question follows here)”. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2013.05.004, Malooly, A. M., Genet, J. J., and Siemer, M. (2013). The dual pathway to creativity model: creative ideation as a function of flexibility and persistence. Participants in the community sample comprised 302 (n = 253 females, 49 males) individuals living in Canada with a mean age of 32.83 (SD = 10.36 years). 152, 19–27. doi: 10.1097/00006842-199903000-00006, Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K. M., and Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). Neurosci. This said, it is important to acknowledge the high correlation between the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire and the cognitive control over emotions component of the CCFQ, which suggests a high degree of overlap between the two measures and potential redundancy. Indeed, it is in the measurement of coping processes that the two measures overlap the most with respect to content, which is most noticeable by their relationship to the versatility in coping subscale of the Coping Flexibility Questionnaire. RESULTS: Post-cognitive behavioral therapy, a significant decrease was observed in Beck Depression Inventory-II, Mental Defeat Scale, Cognitive Flexibility Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores. That is, cross-loadings are freely estimated in the ESEM model akin to how cross-loadings are estimated in exploratory factor analysis. Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and nonruminators. doi: 10.1080/02699930903407948, Joormann, J., Yoon, K. L., and Zetsche, U. Cognitive inhibition in depression. Natl. 9:58. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00058, Park, J., and Moghaddam, B. Thus, although each measure might be useful in different settings, their concurrent use might be equally valuable in distinguishing different aspects of cognitive flexibility relevant to stress-related psychopathology. Cognitive control and attentional functions. 123, 45–54. questionnaire, please contact the Washington Group secretariat. Thus, greater cognitive control over emotion, or the ability to disengage from negative cognitive and emotional states, might not only serve to regulate emotions effectively, but might also play a role in regulating the cortisol response associated with a stressful situation. Promax-rotated, Principal Components Analysis of the CCFQ in a student and community sample. Furthermore, diminished cognitive control over emotion was linked to elevated and prolonged cortisol reactivity following an acute challenge, a neuroendocrine profile that has been associated with depressive illness (Juruena et al., 2017). Thus, it was hypothesized that higher CCFQ scores would be associated with a less pronounced cortisol changes in response to the TSST challenge. Psychiatry 54, 200–207. Neither component of the CCFQ was related to centrality (i.e., the importance of the situation to the individual) or control-by-others. Preliminary analyses suggested a stable and reliable two-factor structure, that of cognitive control over emotion, and appraisal and coping flexibility. The concepts of cognitive control and of cognitive flexibility have been difficult to define (Morton et al., 2011; Ionescu, 2012; Dajani and Uddin, 2015; Hutchison and Morton, 2016), particularly as their definitions overlap and the same behavioral tasks have been used to assess both abilities (Gläscher et al., 2012; Díaz-Blancat et al., 2018). Given this view, optimal coping was proposed to involve flexibility, which can take the form of having a broad and well-balanced coping profile, alternating coping strategies across situations (Cheng et al., 2014). Of course, you may act differently depending on the situation, but try to think of what you usually think/feel/do when you are stressed or upset. Using the scale below, indicate the extent to which agree or disagree with the following statements. From this perspective, the current conceptualization of cognitive control and flexibility can be said to tap into ‘hot’ executive functions. 35, 875–881. The correlation between the two CCFQ components was r = 0.34, p < 0.05. This aside, the main purpose of the present study was to determine whether the CCFQ, as a measure of cognitive control and flexibility in stressful situations, would effectively predict cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses to an acute stressor, which was, in fact, found to occur. Participants were recruited to participate in a survey called “Coping with Stress” using websites, such as Facebook, Kijiji and Craig’s List, and through word of mouth. Trends Cogn. (2010). For example, it is possible that an individual can be flexible in certain situations (e.g., multitasking) but not in others (e.g., emotional regulation). Acad. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.07.015, Snyder, H. R. (2013). As many correlations were generated in the present study, to account for the probability of a Type 1 error, the threshold for statistical significance was adjusted to p = 0.0009 (p = 0.05/58). Indeed, this was expected given that diminished cognitive control (and cognitive flexibility) is characterized by perseverative responding. Notably, the hypothesized model with the residual correlations provided a good fit to the data, χ2(108) = 132.353, p = 0.06, CFI = 0.991, and RMSEA = 0.025. (2003). Psychosocial stress reversibly disrupts prefrontal processing and attentional control. If you choose to participate in this study, you will be asked to complete a mindfulness scale, a cognitive flexibility questionnaire, and to complete a Postformal Thought scale with dilemma. Thus, we determined whether individual differences in cognitive control/flexibility moderated the effects of an acute stressor on cortisol changes provoked by the TSST (Kirschbaum et al., 1993). Fast neural dynamics of proactive cognitive control in a task-switching analogue of the Wisconsin card sorting test. Given that stressful situations are often accompanied by negative emotional responses, cognitive control and flexibility in this context might inherently be tied to the regulation of emotions (e.g., reducing negative emotions or increasing positive emotions through cognitive control). To this end, the CCFQ was developed was developed to assess an individual’s perceived levels of cognitive control and flexibility that were displayed through three stress-related processes, including attention, appraisals and reappraisals, and coping. TABLE 8. Biol. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). More recently, Dennis and Vander Wal (2010) developed the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) as an attempt to identify the aspects of cognitive flexibility In this regard, whereas the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire focuses specifically on repetitive thought independent of content, the cognitive control over emotions component of the CCFQ assesses, more broadly, the ability to exhibit control over (primarily negative) thoughts and emotions. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire The scoring of the 36-item CERQ questionnaire is again straightforward. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.05.005, Dajani, D. R., and Uddin, L. Q. 31, 271–327. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsu016, Simmonds, D. J., Pekar, J. J., and Mostofsky, S. H. (2008). Cogn. Once again, the direct effect of appraisal and coping flexibility on depressive symptoms remained significant after accounting for all 3 forms of coping, c’ = -0.124, SE = 0.043, p = 0.004. The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (Dennis and Vander Wal, 2010) appears to be the only questionnaire to measure aspects of cognitive flexibility relevant to stressful, or difficult, situations. However, these findings are consistent with previous reports indicating that trait rumination, which has been associated with diminished cognitive control over emotion (Koster et al., 2011), predicted delayed cortisol recovery following an acute psychosocial stressor (Zoccola et al., 2010; Stewart et al., 2013). Addict. When a potentially stressful situation is first encountered, appraisals are made concerning the extent to which the potential stressor poses a threat and whether the individual has the necessary resources to cope with the experience (Lazarus, 1999; Folkman, 2013). Various behavioral tasks have been used to measure specific components of cognitive control, including the n-back task, the Stroop task, the Go/No-Go task, and the WCST, among many others (Botvinick et al., 2001; Harvey et al., 2005; Simmonds et al., 2008; Nyhus and Barceló, 2009). Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Differential effects of cognitive inhibition and intelligence on creativity. This consisted of participants being asked to subtract by 17, beginning with the number 1762. Specifically, whereas the control subscale of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory assesses perceived controllability over difficult situations, the cognitive control over emotions component of the CCFQ measures the extent to which an individual can exert control of negative thoughts and emotions. Thus, greater attention has been devoted to identifying factors that contribute to cognitive control and flexibility (Logue and Gould, 2014; Shields et al., 2016), and how disturbances of these abilities might be linked to depressive illness (Davis and Nolen-Hoeksema, 2000; Koster et al., 2011). Clin. For each statement, participants respond on a scale from 1 (almost never) to 4 (almost always) and scores are computed by summing all relevant items. As indicated by its relationship to the validation measures, the CCFQ appears to tap into multiple ways through which cognitive control and flexibility might be expressed in stressful situations in a single, brief questionnaire. J. Abnorm. 18, 176–186. There is, however, one important difference between these two subscales. A., De Dreu, C. K., Rietzschel, E. F., and Baas, M. (2010). It was designed to measure three aspects of cognitive flexibility: (a) the tendency to perceive difficult situations as controllable; (b) the ability to perceive multiple alternative explanations for life occurrences and human behavior; and (c…Â. Consistent with this view, it was suggested that cognitive flexibility allows for shifts between implementation and maintenance of new reappraisals, while working memory is related to the maintenance and monitoring stages of new reappraisals (Zaehringer et al., 2018). Neural correlates of reappraisal considering working memory capacity and cognitive flexibility. Demystifying cognitive flexibility: implications for clinical and developmental neuroscience. Science 324, 646–648. Thus, the lack of test-retest reliability of the CCFQ is an important limitation of the present study.

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