Theodore had a son, who probably predeceased him, and was survived only by a posthumous daughter, Godscall Paleologue, born in January 1694.  Though Pius II was eager to go through with the idea, and Thomas rode around Italy in the hopes of drumming up support for the venture, no crusade materialized this time either. Read "Bibliographische Notizen und Mitteilungen, Byzantinische Zeitschrift" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at …  As such, it is possible that Allatius had access to earlier documents, now lost, which would have proven the legitimacy of the Pesaro line.  Their descent is questionable since there is no surviving contemporary evidence that Andronikos had children. Just a few days after Theodore's death, Michael led a coup against the bureaucrat George Mouzalon, who had been appointed regent by Theodore II. As the Ottoman Empire grew to encompass more and more Byzantine territory, emperors such as John V and Manuel II labored intensely to retore the union, much to the dismay of their subjects.  In addition to the non-imperial Palaiologoi that were descendants of older collateral lines, Byzantine genealogy is also made complicated by the fact that it was common in Byzantium to adopt the family name of your spouse or mother, if that was more prestigious. The Palaiologos (pl.  Once news of the act, the blinding of not only the legitimate emperor, but an underage boy, got out, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Arsenios Autoreianos, excommunicated Michael. Her and Federico II's descendants, with the Gonzaga name, ruled Montferrat until they were supplanted by the House of Savoy, which had also intermarried with the Palaeologus-Montferrat family in the past, in the 18th century. 1 Constantine XI Palaiologos 1.1 Background 2 Titles 2.1 Emperor of the Byzantines 2.2 Despot of the Morea 3 Downfall 3.1 Death Constantine XI Palaiaologos is revered as one of the greatest Roman emperors in history. They are recorded numerous times as donors to monasteries, and intermarried several times with the Komnenos dynasty during its rule over the Byzantine Empire (1081–1185).  A modern lineage, called the Paleologo-Oriundi, descends from Flaminio, an illegitimate son of John George. To avoid infighting, their mother Helena Dragaš decided that Constantine was to be the next emperor. Helena had already been married to Lazar Branković, the Despot of Serbia, but the three younger children, and Thomas's wife Catherine Zaccaria, and a retinue of other refugees, accompanied him as he escaped to the Venetian-held island of Corfu. Constantine XI Palaiologos Died this day, 1453 in defence of Christianity.  The presence of double-headed eagle symbols in the Spirito Santo church has been used as an argument in the past, but this symbol was not unique to the Palaiologoi, being used as a symbol by other families as well (both Byzantine and Western).  Local tradition on Barbados has it that the delegation also sent a letter to the authorities on Barbados, inquiring if descendants of Ferdinand Paleologus still lived on the island.  The most senior descendants of the Tocco family alive today is the Italian Serra family, dukes of Cassano, owing to the 1798 marriage of Guiseppe Serra di Cassano and Teresa Tocco Cantelmo Stuart, daughter of one of the titular Tocco princes of Achaea. The letter supposedly requested that if that was the case, the head of the family should be provided with the means of returning to Greece, with the trip paid for by the Greek government. The last certain members of the imperial line of the Palaiologoi died out in the 16th century, but female-line descendants survive to the present day.  According to Russian sources, he might also have had a daughter, Maria Palaiologina, who married a Russian prince. , Though most of the Palaiologan era was defined by decline and war, it was also an age of cultural flourishing, beginning in the late 13th century. His son Ferdinand Paleologus, escaping the war, settled on the recently colonized island of Barbados in the Caribbean, where he became known as the "Greek prince from Cornwall" and owned a cotton or sugar plantation.  The absence of any mentions of John Palaiologos in contemporary sources means that the Paleologus family's status as genuine male-line descendants of the last few Byzantine emperors can not be proven, but it is not impossible. , In 1373, John V's son and heir Andronikos IV Palaiologos rebelled against his father in an attempt to seize the throne, instigating a fourth series of Palaiologan civil wars. None of their own contemporaries appear to have doubted their imperial descent. Due to his knowledge of the Turkish language, Theodore also accompanied Venetian ambassadors in diplomatic missions to the Ottoman Empire, visiting Constantinople several times. Other crusader states had been formed in Greece as a result of the Fourth Crusade, notably the Kingdom of Thessalonica, which had been ruled by the Aleramici family of Montferrat.  Venice had first become interested in hiring stratioti after witnessing the prowess of Greek and Albanian soldiers in the First Ottoman–Venetian War of 1463–1479. , Lazar Branković's third daughter, Jerina, married Gjon Kastrioti II, the son of Albanian national hero Skanderbeg. Because the name could lend whoever bore it prestige (as well as possible monetary support), many refugees fabricated closer links to the imperial dynasty. In 1453, when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, he was last seen fighting at the city walls, but the actual circumstances of his death have remained surrounded in myth.  Even during the final decades of the Byzantine Empire, the Palaiologoi often found it difficult to cooperate with each other. The promised crusade, the fruit of John VIII's labor, ended only in disaster as it was defeated by the Turks at the Battle of Varna in 1444. Sophia and Ivan had several children and numerous descendants. Murad II's young son and successor, Mehmed II, who became sultan in 1451, was obsessed with the idea of conquering Constantinople.  On John IV's eleventh birthday, 25 December 1261, the boy was deposed, blinded and confined to a monastery.  The change in title might be attributable to the family being the senior heirs of Thomas Palaiologos, whose wife had been the heiress of the last Prince of Achaea. As a younger son, Thomas was never expected to reign, but his children became the only surviving heirs of the defunct Palaiologan dynasty. , There was peace between the Palaiologans and the Ottomans until 1421, when Mehmed I died and Manuel retired from state affairs, to pursue scholarly and religious interests. , Another family which claims to descend from the old imperial dynasty are the Paleologu of Romania, claiming to be the descendants of an otherwise unattested son of Theodore II Palaiologos, Despot of the Morea, called Emanuel Petrus (Manuel Petros in Greek).  Theodore left Barbados to work as a privateer, serving aboard a ship called Charles II, and died at A Coruña, Spain in 1693. In 1284, Michael's son and successor Andronikos II Palaiologos visited the blinded and then 33-year-old John IV during a journey in Anatolia, hoping to demonstrate his disapproval with his father's actions. Their rule as Emperors and Autocrats of the Romans lasted almost two hundred years, from 1259 to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.  The Tocco family, male-line descendants of Leonardo III and Milica Branković styled themselves as princes on the ground that they represented not only the senior descendants of the Byzantine imperial dynasty, but of the Serbian royal dynasty as well. , By the 15th century, the Byzantine emperors had lost any real power, with the Ottoman sultans increasingly becoming the real regulators of political matters within the empire.  The 1570 will of Demetri Paleologo, a son of Theodore, begins with "Io Demetri Palleollogo, da Constantinopoli ...".  Bayezid's siege lasted for more than a decade, with Western aid through the Crusade of Nicopolis (1396) failing to stop the sultan. The Palaiologan emperors aspired to reunite the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church of Rome, to ensure legitimacy in the eyes of the West and in an attempt to secure aid against the many enemies of their empire.  An expedition to "recover" these territories was never organized.  This family history derives mainly from oral tradition, with only a handful of documents possibly verifying parts of it as true. , Michael VIII succeeded in achieving a union of the Catholic and Orthodox churches at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274, legitimizing him and his successors as rulers of Constantinople in the eyes of the West. Though Constantine XI died in communion with Rome (and thus as a "heretic"), his death in battle against the Ottomans, defending Constantinople, made the Greeks and the Orthodox church remember him as a hero, redeeming popular opinion of the dynasty as a whole. Emperors are indicated with bold text and women are indicated with italics. 236 relations. , The Palaiologoi's many marriages with prominent Byzantine families was reflected in their choice of surnames, with earlier members of the imperial dynasty using the surnames of several of the previous ruling dynasties to reinforce their legitimacy. , Though Michael's successor Andronikos II quickly repudiated the Union of the Churches, many of the Palaiologan emperors worked to ensure its restoration. Because the family was extensive before it produced emperors, the name Palaiologos was legitimately held not only by nobles part of the actual imperial dynasty. , The Palaiologoi ruled Byzantium at its weakest point in history, and the empire underwent significant economical and political decline. Andreas Palaiologos died at a much younger age compared to his father, Constantine XI. Death.  After the recapture of the capital and the restoration of the Byzantine Empire, Michael took care to be crowned emperor in Hagia Sophia, as Byzantine emperors had been before the city was lost to the crusaders. Constantine XI  Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405   – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor,    reigning as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople. Παλαιολόγοι, female version Palaiologina; Greek: Παλαιολογίνα), also found in English-language literature as Palaeologus or Palaeologue, was a Byzantine Greek family that rose to nobility and produced the last and longest-ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire. Allatius gives the sons of Thomas as "Andrea, Manuele and Ioanne". In 1495, Theodore partook in a siege of Novara and also partook in later battles in Savona and Cephalonia. Clearly intending to usurp the throne, a new series of civil wars from 1352 to 1357 were eventually won by John V, deposing the Kantakouzenoi. Rogerio was purportedly a judge and is said to have died in 1488, survived by his wife Antonia and his two children John (or Giovanni) and Angela. The Empress Helena, acting … The repeated attempts by the emperors to reunite the Greek Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church, and thus place the Byzantine church in submission under the Papacy, was viewed as heresy and treason. According to several later oral traditions, the family had originated in Italy, supposedly in the city of Viterbo. , In order to conserve space, the family tree only displays people of male-line descent who survived until adulthood (with the exception of co-emperor Andronikos V Palaiologos, who died a child). In the meantime, John VI Kantakouzenos attempted to consolidate his own dynasty on the imperial throne, marrying his daughter Helena to John V and proclaiming his son Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperor. His brothers included the Byzantine emperors John VIII Palaiologos and Constantine XI Palaiologos, as well as Theodore II Palaiologos and Demetrios Palaiologos, Despots of the Morea, and Andronikos Palaiologos, Despot of Thessalonica. , Andreas died poor in Rome in 1502. Lisez des commentaires honnêtes et non biaisés sur les produits de la part nos utilisateurs.  After a 53-day long siege, the city finally fell to the Ottomans on 29 May 1453.  Manuel's son Andreas converted to Islam and might have served as an Ottoman court official. His maternal grandfather was Constantine Dragaš. , The marriage of Zoe/Sophia (Thomas's second daughter) to Ivan III of Moscow served to strengthen Moscow's claim to be the "Third Rome", the ideological and spiritual successor to the Byzantine Empire. Constantine XI Palaeologus, Palaeologus also spelled Palaiologos, (born February 9, 1404, Constantinople, Byzantine Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]—died May 29, 1453, Constantinople), the last Byzantine emperor (1449–53), killed in the final defense of Constantinople against the Ottoman Turks. Chronicle of the Fall of Constatinople : Brief History of Events in Constantinople during the Period 1440-1453, Georgiou Frantzi, Ioannis A. Melisseidis - translator : Ioannis A. Melisseidis, Rita Zavolea Melisseidou ) 1998/2004, Ekd.Vergina, Athens. Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, reigning as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Christian Emperor of Constantinople and the Byzantine empire. In his will from 1372, John II claimed that Andronikos II's deposition in 1328 by his grandson Andronikos III (John V's father) had been unlawful and thus disqualified Andronikos III and all his heirs from the legitimate line of succession to the throne of Byzantium.  He is last attested in the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566) and is not believed to have had children of his own.  Theodore was one of the key players in the Greek community in Venice, having helped the Greek refugees there achieve permission to construct the San Giorgio dei Greci church in the first place, and his family was highly regarded by the locals. When Constantinople fell to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the Palaiologoi fled to the Empire of Nicaea, a Byzantine successor state ruled by the Laskaris family, where they continued to play an active role and occupied many offices of high rank. During their rule as emperors, the Palaiologoi were not well-liked by their subjects, mostly on account of their religious policy. A gallant prince, he completed the conquest of the Peloponnesus from the Latins and heroically commanded the futile defense of Constantinople against the Turks.  Despite Michael VIII's efforts, the union was disrupted in 1281, after just seven years, when he was excommunicated by Pope Martin IV. Advances in science and the arts, referred to as the Palaiologan Renaissance, lasted throughout the dynasty's rule, encouraged by the efforts of some emperors such as Andronikos II and Manuel II. Thomas retained hope that the Papacy might yet call for a crusade to restore the Byzantine Empire whereas Demetrios, probably the more realistic of the two, had more or less given up hope of Christian aid from the West and believed it to be best to placate the Turks. , During most of their tenure as Byzantine emperors, the Palaiologan dynasty was not well-liked by their subjects. Venetian documents frequently refer to their "strenuous" prowess in service to the Venetian Republic.  These modern Palaiologoi cannot be confidently proven to descend from the imperial dynasty, or the medieval family which produced it.  Ultimately, the delegation's search was in vain and they found no living embodiments of their lost empire. Palaiologos-Wikipedia. The Phanariots sent to Wallachia and Moldavia included people with the last name Palaiologos, ancestors of the Paleologu family. Demetrios drew support for his opposition to the union between the Orthodox and Catholic churches.  Andreas and Manuel soon faced financial problems, with the pension once provided to their father having been split between the two of them and constantly cut back by the Papacy.  Ultimately, the siege was resolved peacefully by Manuel through signing a peace treaty with Bayezid's son and successor, Mehmed I, in 1403, which among other things returned the city of Thessaloniki, captured by the Ottomans in 1387, to Byzantine rule.  Michael seized the guardianship of the child emperor and was invested with the titles of megas doux and despotes.  A 1489 census of San Mauro Cilento records no inhabitants with Byzantine surnames, though records a widow and daughter of "Quondam Princi de Rogerio Greco", someone subsequent censuses make clear left no further descendants. Andronikos Palaiologos, father of the later emperor Michael VIII, was proclaimed megas domestikos (commander-in-chief), probably by Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes. Some, such as Theophilos Palaiologos, lost their lives in the battle, whereas others were taken prisoner and executed. In an effort to rid himself of the threat that an Aleramici pretender might launch an invasion and attempt to seize Thessaloniki in the future, Andronikos married Yolande of Montferrat in 1284, bringing her dynastic claims to Thessaloniki into his own family line. , Through most of John VIII's reign, Constantine and Thomas ruled as Despots of the Morea, with Demetrios governing a stretch of land in Thrace.  The ill-advised threat gave Mehmed a casus belli and late in 1451, preparations were already underway for a new Ottoman siege of Constantinople. 1481–1512). , Because Venice was the only major non-Muslim power in the Eastern Mediterranean, it represented an appealing destination for Byzantine refugees as the empire fell.  The earliest known member of the family, possibly its founder, was Nikephoros Palaiologos, commander (possibly doux) of the Theme of Mesopotamia in the second half of the 11th century, in the reign of Emperor Michael VII Doukas. Not only were the means the family had used to gain the throne grim, but their religious policy alienated many within the empire. However, Andronikos eventually escaped from prison and successfully took the throne in 1376 with aid from Genoa, imprisoning his father and his younger brother. , The Byzantine aristocracy were less than eager of sending one of Andronikos II's sons to claim Montferrat. , In contrast to these ancient and prestigious origin stories, the Palaiologoi probably actually originated relatively late in Anatolia, possibly in the Anatolic Theme. The Paleologu also live in Malta and France, one of the most famous members of the family being the French diplomat Maurice Paléologue, who in his lifetime repeatedly asserted his imperial descent. The sultan generously received him and Manuel stayed in Constantinople for the rest of his life. Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, today more commonly known as the Byzantine Empire. In 1453, when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, he was last seen fighting at the city walls, but the actual circumstances of his death have remained surrounded in myth. Palaiologoi; Greek: Παλαιολόγος, pl. His brothers included the Byzantine emperors John VIII Palaiologos and Constantine XI Palaiologos , as well as Theodore II Palaiologos and Demetrios Palaiologos, despots in Morea, and Andronikos Palaiologos, despot in Thessalonica.  To prevent aid coming from the Morea, now governed by Thomas and Demetrios, Mehmed II sent one of his generals, Turahan Bey (who had raided the Morea twice before) to devastate the peninsula.  Byzantine fears of Latinization became true; Theodore converted to Catholicism and on his visits to Constantinople, Theodore schocked the Byzantines with his shaven face and Western customs. The role of the Palaiologoi as the final Christian dynasty to rule over Greek lands also accorded them a more positive remembrance among Greeks during the period of Ottoman rule.  In 1798, the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, Anthemus, wrote that the Ottoman Empire had been imposed by God himself as the supreme empire on Earth due to the heretical dealings of the Palaiologan emperors with Christians in the West..  Demetrios was unhappy with his subordinate position and assaulted Constantinople in 1442, with Ottoman help, in an attempt to seize the city and become emperor himself. , In January 1459, rivalry between the brothers broke out into civil war as Thomas, with the aid of some of the Albanian lords in the Morea, seized a series of fortresses held by Demetrios. His nephew, Zuanne Paleologo, and two of Zuanne's sons, died on Cyprus, fighting the Ottomans during the 1570 Siege of Nicosia in the Fourth Ottoman–Venetian War.  The Tocco family went extinct in 1884, with the title of Prince of Achaea (among others) being inherited by Carlo Capece Galeota, their closest relative.  Michael VIII was taunted with the words "you have become a Frank", which remains a term in Greek to taunt converts to Catholicism to this day.  Born in 1452, and probably originally from Mystras in the Morea, Theodore was originally a debt collector for the Ottomans in the Morea. Allatius was the keeper of the Vatican Library and would have had access to its vast collection of books and records and might have deduced his findings from there. Some reports said that it was due to poisoning after he'd attended a banquet in one of his subject's palaces outside Constantinople.  The brothers were divided in their policies. John VIII had betrayed their faith and as such their entire imperial ideology and world view. , Ferdinand died in 1670 and was survived only by his son, Theodore. The Montferrat cadet branch (descendants of Theodore, son of Emperor Andronikos II) is not shown. Over a century had passed since Constantinople, a city Demetri had never seen, had fallen and yet he retained lingering dreams of the city. Many of his subjects had chastized him as a traitor and heretic while he lived and he, like many of his predecessors before him, died in communion with the Church of Rome.  Thus, the male line of the imperial branch of the House of Palaiologos probably went extinct at some point in the early 16th century. The Byzantine civil wars, and the collapse of Stefan Dušan's Serbian Empire following his death in 1355, had allowed the Ottoman Turks to expand almost unopposed through the Balkans and in the second half of the 14th century, the empire passed almost without a fight under Ottoman sovereignty, forced to pay tribute and offer military aid if needed. The emperor's excommunication was not lifted until nine years into his reign, upon the appointment of Patriarch Joseph I. Thomas Palaiologos was the youngest surviving son of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos and his wife Helena Dragaš. Disputes between John V's mother Anna of Savoy and the Patriarch John XIV on one side and Andronikos III's friend and megas domestikos John Kantakouzenos on the other led to a new and devastating civil war, lasting until 1347 and won by John Kantakouzenos, who became senior co-emperor as John VI. English: Constantine XI Palaiologos or Palaeologus, (February 8, 1405 – May 29, 1453) was the last reigning Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, from 1448 to his death. A 1463 document supposedly signed by King Ferdinand I of Aragon records the granting of some lands in the vicinity of San Mauro to Rogerio, son of "illustrissimi Thomae Palaeologi dispoti Moreae". , Some nobles with the last name Palaiologos remained in Ottoman Constantinople, and even prospered in the immediate post-conquest period. Andreas Palaeologus in Rome, 1465-1502", "El fin de Constantinopla y las supuestas herencias nobiliarias bizantinas", "Su alcune discendenze moderne dei Paleologi di Bisanzio", "The Palaiologos Family After 1453: The Destiny of an Imperial Family", Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit, "Les premiers Paléologues. , Numerous people with the last name Palaiologos, living on the island of Syros in Greece, have historically claimed descent from a supposed son of Andronikos Palaiologos, one of Emperor Manuel II's sons and Despot of Thessaloniki. In the years that followed it was said that he was not dead but sleeping - the 'immortal emperor' turned to marble, who would one day be … He was trained as a soldier and in 1441 conquered the Morea Peninsula of Greece. A little less than five years later in 1453 AD he was killed during the final assaults by the Turkish Sultan, Mehmed II on Constantinople. 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